Countries have reinforced and integrated Inclusive Green Economy goals and targets into national economic and development planning aligned with UN Sustainable Development Goals.
PAGE supports countries through Inclusive Green Economy (IGE) diagnostics, assessments, and policy analysis, prioritization of IGE sectors, as well as mobilization and engagement of public, private and civil society stakeholders.
Achievements to 2020:
- 43 national development plans or cross-sectoral strategies integrating IGE priorities supported by PAGE in 15 countries
- 40 reports completed (8 additional reports in 8 countries in 2020) providing national IGE diagnostics, assessments and policy analysis and feeding into national planning processes
- 113 cross-sectoral consultations (12 additional consultations in 7 countries in 2020) organized to mobilize stakeholders, share results of policy analysis and consult priorities
- 221 institutions of public, private and civil society stakeholders mobilized and engaged in cross-sectoral IGE prioritization
Mongolia has integrated IGE goals and targets into SDG-aligned national economic and development planning. When PAGE started to phase-out support in 2018, focus shifted to how policy efforts could be sustained and further embedded.
- SDG-based environmental budgeting: UNDP is supporting a pilot project on SDG-based environmental budgeting, which received initial funding from PAGE. UNDP Mongolia worked with the Ministry of Finance (MOF) to introduce a gradual integration of SDGs into its budget cycle — covering sectors as well as processes to ensure state and local budget decision-making account for the Goals. In 2019, an initial expenditure trend analysis was conducted and the exercise to align budgeting with SDV/SDG priorities and indicators was launched covering three areas: special protected areas; desertification and land degradation; and water resource management. In 2020, UNDP conducted on-site mission trips to selected provinces to monitor the implementation of the SDGs budget at local government levels, policy objectives mapping to update the approval of the long-term development policy vision document Vision-2050 and the completion of a Fiscal Analysis of the Environment and Tourism Sector to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in Mongolia. Additionally, in 2020, the application of the SDG budgeting methodology and template was expanded by the MET to develop seven budget programmes along with performance indicators for the 2021 fiscal year.
With the National Green Development Policy (NGDP), Mongolia has a national framework in place that sets clear goals for green development, centered on sustainable consumption and production, sustainable ecosystem carrying capacity, increased investment in natural capital, human development, green technology, and green lifestyle and education. The complementary Action Plan sets concrete actions to achieve these targets. This work supported SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development and SDG 8, target 8.3 by supporting development-oriented policies.
Both the NGDP and Action Plan are underpinned by the results of a modelling and policy assessment carried out by the Economic Policy and Competitiveness Research Centre (EPCRC). In addition to scenario testing, this provided specific policy recommendations for four selected sectors – construction, solid waste, energy and water. This has contributed to SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by developing measurements of progress on sustainable development and supporting capacity-building.
In 2015, PAGE helped define indicators for measuring progress towards the NGDP in collaboration with the National Statistical Office (NSO) and Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI). The government utilized national budgetary resources to operationalize these indicators in July 2017 — enabling the monitoring of implementation on a continual basis, including information on green jobs through the regular Labour Force Survey. This work was aligned to SDG 17, target 17.19, on developing measurements of progress on sustainable development.
Four aimags (provinces) have adopted medium-term development programmes based on the principles from the Sustainable Development Vision and NGDP and five aimags are working on final drafts. This has supported SDG 13, target 13.2, by integrating climate change measures into policies and SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence.
Augmenting the five-year period of support, follow-up work is ongoing, which includes identifying synergies with complementary initiatives, as part of the effort to sustain PAGE’s work in Mongolia.
PAGE has played a fundamental role in shaping decision-making and policies that promote IGE by supporting multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge development.
A number of activities have taken place to identify and integrate IGE priorities at the national level:
Developing guidelines for green growth
An analysis of the Peruvian economy and its green growth potential resulted in the development of Guidelines for Green Growth. Approved in 2016, these guidelines lay the groundwork for the adoption of green growth to achieve development, promote coordination between sectors and ensure compliance with international principles. To facilitate the implementation of the Guidelines, PAGE identified 12 policy tools for the government to employ in the short-term, including the modification of the tax structure on fuel to fund the energy transition as well as measures targeting agriculture and water.
Incorporating IGE into national policy
PAGE supported the development of the National Competitiveness and Productivity Policy adopted in December 2018, and subsequent Plan agreed in July 2019. They outline environmental sustainability as a priority objective, with the aim to create green growth and jobs. PAGE provided technical assistance on this priority area through five specific work groups and informed the design of four out of the seven policy measures that were incorporated into the final Plan. This, together with the Guidelines for Green Growth, is aligned with SDG 8, target 8.5 by promoting decent work, SDG 12, target 12.1 by incorporating sustainable production and consumption into national policies, and SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence.
PAGE helped the Government identify elements for the construction of a green growth development model. This included identifying priority areas through a stocktaking study and the ex-ante evaluation of green policies and their social, economic, and environmental impact by means of a quantitative assessment. The University of the Pacific was selected as the national institution to support this work.
PAGE has subsequently provided more specialized assistance to the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) to apply the Integrated Green Economy Modelling (IGEM) framework. A series of workshops were conducted in 2018 to develop modelling capabilities. In 2019, PAGE extended its support at the sub-sector level, with a report — “Quantitative Analysis of Green Policies in the Manufacturing Sector” — as well as training for 25 participants from various ministries, including sessions with technical experts. This work aligns to SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence and target 17.19, by building on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress.
PAGE has facilitated inter-ministerial dialogue through the PAGE Technical Committee and National Steering Committee (led at the level of Vice Ministers). Following a change in government, the Ministry of Environment (MINAM) took over inter-ministerial coordination in 2018, to ensure country ownership after the phase-out period. This contributes to SDG 17, target 17.16, by facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships.
PAGE has supported the integration of green economy into national policies through multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge development. Beyond the executive branch of government, parliamentarians, local mayors and members of different high councils mandated by the President have engaged in PAGE work.
PAGE’s five years of action corresponded with the implementation of the Plan Senegal Emergent (PSE), including the first Priority Action Plan (PAP 2014-2018) and the development of the PSE II and second PAP (2019-2023). The initial PSE signalled Senegal’s commitment to sustainable development at a high-level, translated into more practical measures through the PAPs. In the PSE II reference to green economy objectives was further strengthened, and the PSE Vert has become a guide for the government’s green initiatives. In 2016, a National Strategic Orientation Document on Green Economy, together with a supporting action plan was formulated with support from a national technical team. And in 2018, PAGE embarked on a partnership with the Ministry of Environmental and Sustainable Development to update the existing national green economy model and related Green Economy Assessment report. Using the updated model, the second edition of the green economy assessment analyzed six sectors connected to the second PAP that is being implemented since 2019. This work contributes to SDG 17, targets 17.14, 17.15 and 17.19 by enhancing policy coherence and supporting country-owned frameworks and tools.
PAGE, in collaboration with the Ministry of Environmental and Sustainable Development and Institute of Environmental Sciences, organized two National Green Economy Days in 2015 and 2018, providing stakeholders with the opportunity to discuss Senegal’s transition to a green economy. The third edition took place on 11-12 February 2020. The event held in February 2018 featured the launch of the study “Funds and Mechanisms for the Management of Oil and Gas Revenues to Support Sustainable Development” and discussed the first findings from the study on “Skills for Green Jobs” in Senegal. In post-graduation, the Green Economy Days will be taken forward beyond PAGE, demonstrating the level of national ownership of IGE. This supports SDG 17, targets 17.14 and 17.16 by enhancing policy coherence and building partnerships.
One of the highlights of the second Green Economy Days was the announcement of the National Multi-stakeholder Platform on the Green Economy that aims to stimulate green growth and development. PAGE supported the establishment of this platform, holding consultations to develop a charter on green economy and to create a mission and objectives. The Platform brings together a dozen institutions and provides a forum for dialogue, information sharing and coordinated action on issues such as green financing, climate change, green jobs, and the sustainable exploitation of the country’s oil and gas resources. The Decree establishing and setting the organizational modalities of the national platform on the green economy was signed by the Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development in May 2020 after it was further endorsed during the third edition of the National Green Economy Days. Going forward, the platform will act as an institutional driver to ensure sustainability when PAGE phases out of Senegal. This work contributes to SDG 17, target 17.16, by facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships.
PAGE has helped shape policymaking at a local and national level by linking green economy goals to wider SDG and NDC targets, as well as by establishing robust indicators to measure progress. This has been underpinned by support on a local level to integrate green measures into planning processes and monitor progress against these indicators.
A major focus for Ghana has been the development of the country’s next Medium-Term National Development Framework (2018-2021). This was substantially informed by the medium-term development plans of sub-national Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) – developed with active support from PAGE. This national framework has set a clear pathway towards transitioning to a green economy. Prior to this, PAGE support was aligned to the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda, ending in 2017.
PAGE work has focused on supporting MMDAs and relevant sector representatives to improve their capacity to mainstream climate change and green economy actions into their work. A manual for mainstreaming climate change and green economy-related SDGs into development planning was produced and as of 2018, 280 staff of 24 MMDAs across the three regions of Northern Ghana received training on its use. This has resulted in the incorporation and adoption of green economy-related actions into the medium-term plans of 216 MMDAs across the country.
In 2020, PAGE assessed the impact of these previous trainings, looking specifically at those on SDGs and on mainstreaming climate change within development plans. Lessons learned will be disseminated through national dialogues to inform training models, guidance and policies on mainstreaming, monitoring and reporting on climate change and the SDGs.
To ensure comparability in data collection and computation across MMDAs, PAGE has supported Ghana Statistical Services (GSS) – in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MESTI) and the National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) – to develop metadata for climate change and green economy-related SDGs. The final metadata report covering 138 indicators was completed in 2019, with approximately 162 statisticians trained in its use across the country. The report offers a foundation to the government for developing a comprehensive compendium of metadata for the SGDs and its medium-term development policy framework, with a specialist committee formed to take it forward. Beyond supporting policymaking and planning, this work enables sound reporting to the international community through the Voluntary National Review framework.
A Presidential Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources has been established with a mandate to coordinate the government’s intervention in the fight against illegal small-scale mining. Chaired by MESTI, the Committee’s work includes coordinating actions for rehabilitation of degraded forest and farmlands through illegal small-scale mining, thus contributing to Ghana’s achievement of its emission targets. Together with the Inter-Ministerial Committee for SDGs hosted by the Ministry of Planning at the Presidency and the SDGs Implementation Committee, these national institutions provide an entry point at the highest political level to drive actions on climate change and green economy beyond PAGE.
The Ghana Sustainability Plan was reviewed by the PAGE Steering Committee in July 2019 and UN Inter-Agency partners in August 2019 — the document sets out PAGE’s achievements as well as lessons learned to be taken forward. A Green Economy week is expected to be held in early 2021 to showcase the results and impact of PAGE work in Ghana, during which the sustainability plan will be discussed with a broad range of stakeholders including potential financiers for forward-looking action. A fundraising plan or financing plan is expected to accompany the sustainability plan, aiming to rally complementary resources that could maintain and accelerate results in Ghana.
The above work contributes to SDG 12, target 12.1 by incorporating sustainable production and consumption into national policies, and SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development. Work to develop metadata aligns with SDG 17, target 17.18, by providing capacity-building to increase the availability of high-quality, timely, and reliable disaggregated data.
PAGE has played a fundamental role in supporting national dialogue, through the completion of assessments, organization of forums and by building a strong case linking poverty reduction to green economy.
Several green economy analyses, including the Mauritius Green Economy Assessment and Mauritius Fiscal Policy Scoping Study, were completed — providing inputs into the Mauritius National Vision objectives. Strategic documents were then subsequently developed by the Mauritian government to guide the achievement of these objectives, mainstreaming IGE principles, including two successive mid-term strategies: “Three-Year Strategic Plan: Rising to the Challenge of Our Ambitions (2017/18-2019/20)” and “Three-Year Strategic Plan: Pursuing Our Transformative Journey 2018/19-2020/21”; and the “10-Year Masterplan for the SME Sector in Mauritius”. This work supports SDG 17, target 17.4, by enhancing policy coherence.
In May 2018, a week-long Green Economy Forum was organized jointly with the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, to share the latest developments related to Mauritius’ green economy transition. 273 participants from government institutions, the private sector, training institutions and civil society attended to increase competences around the green bonds market and promote knowledge sharing on policy formulation and green economy transition. This contributes to SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence and target 17.16, by supporting partnerships.
Several activities have taken place to support policymaking on national and local levels, not only to advance the objective of IGE, but also the achievement of the SDGs. PAGE indirectly supported the country’s Voluntary National Review (VNR) to the HLPF in July 2019, in which PAGE activities were featured of SDGs 1,12, 13 and 17. The PAGE supported ‘Tracking of Public Sector Environmental Expenditures (TPSEE)’ tool was used to develop the report’s chapter on SDG 13.
Additionally, the Strategic Partnership Framework (SPF) Agreement for 2019-2023 was signed in August 2019 between the Government of Mauritius and the UN, to support collaboration until 2023. PAGE and SWITCH Africa Green played an important role in mainstreaming IGE principles into this Framework. Additionally, the new Government Programme for 2020-2024: “Toward an Inclusive, High Income and Green Mauritius, Forging Ahead Together” will be used as a source of inspiration and guidance for future policymaking, containing multiple aspirations aligned with thematic areas PAGE has supported in the country.
PAGE has supported the integration of green economy on the policy level in Burkina Faso through multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge development.
The adoption of the National Strategy on the Green Economy (SNEV) in 2019 marked a significant milestone in Burkina Faso’s transition to IGE. The SNEV contributes to the vision outlined in the PNDES, which states that Burkina Faso will transform its economy to achieve strong and inclusive growth through sustainable consumption and production patterns. The strategy was informed by macroeconomic and sectoral assessments supported by PAGE and involved more than 90 stakeholders in the validation process.
A programme document for the implementation of the SNEV was validated in October 2020, which includes an action plan for the SNEV and sustainability plan for PAGE. Additionally, in 2020 PAGE through the Ministry of Environment, provided inputs for the next national development plan for 2021-2025 (PNDES 2), with the aim to further strengthen the integration of IGE into national planning. This work is aligned to SDGs 8, 12, 13 and 17, targets 8.5, 12.4, 13.2, 17.11 and 17.14 on achieving productive employment and decent work, achieving the environmentally sound management of all wastes, integrating climate change measures into national policies, promoting exports and enhancing policy coherence.
Options are being evaluated regarding national coordination for forward going green economy work, including the integration into an existing coordinating mechanism such as the Climate Change coordination Committee. This contributes to achieving SDG 17, target 17.14, by working to enhance policy coherence for sustainable development, and target 17.16, by supporting partnerships.
PAGE has provided a solid foundation to develop, measure and assess national policies relating to sustainability and green economy. Several activities have contributed to the alignment of IGE goals with national policymaking.
One of the first outputs for PAGE was the Green Economy Inventory for South Africa (GEISA) that serves as a platform for enhancing coordination and acts as a tool to guide decision making amongst policymakers. Covering approximately 1,000 green initiatives, this work is illustrative of growing activity in the green economy landscape. Seven of the nine provinces have developed provincial green economy strategies following the GEISA and sectoral policies in waste management, water, energy, manufacturing and transport have been adopted. Insights drawn from the GEISA have been instrumental in understanding how existing green economy actions can be expanded and scaled-up to support the SDGs and NDCs. This work has supported SDG 17, target 17.4, by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development.
PAGE has worked with the Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DEFF), the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME), Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) and the Department of Science and Innovation (DST) to develop a framework for monitoring the transition to an environmentally sustainable and low-carbon economy. This work has focused on the development of a Green Economy Progress (GEP) Measurement Framework and sustainability indicators for South Africa based on the global GEP Framework, following the example of Jiangsu province. The GEP Measurement Framework for South Africa was finalized and launched in November 2020, helping to support review of green economy policies and progress towards the SDGs (SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19). The exchange with Jiangsu province contributes to target 17.6 by enhancing South-South cooperation.
PAGE work in Jiangsu launched with a stocktaking on the region’s green economy, summarizing good practices and potential challenges for policy implementation and subsequent areas for support aligned with the provincial government’s implementation of the 13th Five-Year plan.
PAGE has supported Nanjing University to provide evidence-based IGE policy analysis through the development of a GEP measurement framework for Jiangsu. This complements the existing framework used by the provincial government with strengthened social and gender dimensions, to help identify policy gaps and opportunities for future resource allocations. This was shared with South Africa to inform development of their national GEP indicators.
The GEP framework has been broadened to measure the performance of 13 prefecture-level cities in Jiangsu and has also been applied in Fujian Province, operated by Fujian Normal University, to monitor the green economy progress on both provincial and city levels. This has fostered a GEP learning network between the two universities and others, including Zhejiang University and Suzhou University of Science and Technology. A dedicated Jiangsu Green Economy database and an online monitoring tool were presented at an expert consultation workshop in December 2019.
In July 2020, the report ‘2015-2017 Green Economy Progress Measurement in Jiangsu and Fujian Province, China’ was published in English and Chinese. The GEP work from Jiangsu Province has also been shared with South Africa to inform development of their national GEP indicators. Work on the GEP framework supports SDG 8, target 8.4, by promoting resource efficiency in consumption and production, target 8.5, by supporting full, productive employment, and SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by increasing the availability of data and progress measurements towards SDGs.
Dongying, a city in Shandong province, has been involved with PAGE since 2016 as a volunteer city and has expressed interest in continuing the engagement with technical support from PAGE. While Dongying will use its own resource, this will scale-up and further sustain the work of PAGE in China.
PAGE is supporting the gradual integration of green economy into policies by supporting national ownership and cross collaboration and engagement.
The Steering Committee in Mato Grosso was established by decree in 2016 to promote the coordination and implementation of PAGE work. Following a restructuring in the state government in 2019, a new PAGE Steering Committee was established, including clear terms of reference, a list of members and its functions. As well as defining the annual work plan, the Steering Committee facilitated the recruitment of a PAGE coordinator and programme assistant for Mato Grosso in February 2019 to enable coordination between the PAGE team in Cuiabá and the UN Agencies in Brasilia. These activities contribute to SDG 17, targets 17.16, by promoting partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge and expertise to support the achievement of the SDGs.
PAGE work has focused on establishing a foundation to develop, measure and assess national policies relating to sustainability and green economy. Under the lead of the Ministry of Economy, a series of activities have contributed to the alignment of IGE goals with national policymaking.
Following the adoption of the National Development Strategy 2040, and the accompanying five-year development programme Unity, Trust and Creation in 2018, a critical milestone was approval of the Green Economy Development Programme in November 2019. The Programme was officially adopted in July 2020, supported by a detailed plan and indicators to monitor progress. It incorporates several studies and roadmaps developed with PAGE support on green finance, procurement and learning, as well as the first results of PAGE’s macroeconomic modelling. The Kyrgyz Republic has also demonstrated its commitment to IGE through ratification of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in 2019. This work supports SDG 13, target 13.2, and SDG 17, target 17.14, on integrating climate change measures into national policies and enhancing policy coherence.
Several activities are being undertaken to support effective implementation and monitoring of IGE policies, including:
Modelling policy scenarios
PAGE began providing green economy modelling support to the Ministry of Economy in 2018. With the support of an international expert, modelling work started with the identification of seven sectors and three thematic areas for policy intervention. The work has continued in 2019 and 2020, with a focus on creating an integrated simulation model, model validation and capacity-building. The final green economy model was completed in 2020 and will continually be updated with the latest available statistical data.
Monitoring implementation across national programmes
PAGE is supporting the President’s Office and the Ministry of Economy to build a monitoring system for the implementation of key development strategies and programmes. This includes the long-term Strategy-2040, five year programme 2018-2023 and Green Economy Development Programme. Five training workshops were conducted with the Unit of Strategic Development, Policy, Economy and Finance (SDPEF) of the President’s Office to strengthen knowledge and skills around monitoring and reporting. At the Ministry of Economy work is focused on improving data collection and reporting, monitoring and evaluations systems. This, together with modelling on policy scenarios, supports SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by increasing data and measurements of progress towards the SDGs.
Establishing national mechanisms to support IGE implementation
In 2019, the PAGE Inter-Ministerial Board was set up to guide IGE implementation, consisting of 11 ministries and departments and Chaired by the Ministry of Economy. In January 2020, the Government established a Coordination Commission on Green Economy and Climate Change, with PAGE supporting this process. This Commission will, among other things, coordinate action of the state executive authorities, local governments, non-profit and international organizations to support implementation of the National Green Economy Programme. This supports SDG 17, targets 17.14 and 17.16 by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development.
Demonstrating country ownership of the IGE agenda
In November 2019, the Green Economy Week focusing on “Strong Regions” was held in Bishkek. More than 35 events were organised, including a two-day training on PAGE’s macroeconomic analysis, making it the world’s biggest green economy week. This event demonstrates the high degree of country ownership of the IGE agenda and commitment to PAGE, thereby supporting SDG 17, targets 17.15 and 17.15.
Uruguay has taken significant steps to integrate environmental dimensions into national planning and strategy formulation with PAGE support.
Several activities have been completed to support integration of IGE into national policy frameworks, as follows:
National Environmental Plan
Uruguay’s National Environmental Plan for Sustainable Development was formally launched in October 2019. This Plan provides a framework for developing policies at a national level that integrate the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development. To create a unified framework for environmental management, the Plan seeks to strengthen the Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment, which is the environmental authority responsible for environmental planning. It also calls for the National Environmental System – an inter-agency group comprised of various national bodies – to prepare a plan to align the activities of actors at national, departmental and municipal levels.
National Development Strategy
PAGE supported the inclusion of environmental components into the National Development Strategy Uruguay 2050, officially announced in August 2019. As well as providing an overarching environmental perspective, PAGE’s role in the development of the Strategy included a strategic environmental assessment and greenhouse gasses scenario analysis on the forest-wood-cellulose value chain. This, together with the National Environmental Plan, contribute to SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development. Work on the forest-wood-cellulose value chain contributes to SDG 8, target 8.4, by working to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, and SDG 12, target 12.2, by promoting the sustainable management and efficient use of natural materials. The development of greenhouse gasses scenario analysis supports SDG 13, targets 13.1 and 13.2 by integrating climate change measures into national policies.
Building on the green economy assessment completed in 2015, PAGE has facilitated the use of macroeconomic modelling and related capacity development for public officials, enabling them to develop economic models with an environmental component and evaluate the potential impacts of environmental policies. In 2018, PAGE supported the development of a report describing available models for impact assessment of environmental policies at a macroeconomic level. This work contributes to SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by increasing the availability of data and measurements of the progress towards the SDGs.
PAGE has established itself as a partnership mechanism to support dialogue and provide technical expertise to contribute to the government’s national strategy and vision.
PAGE supported the finalization of the Green State Development Strategy, holding discussions with various ministers and a wide group of stakeholders and supporting public outreach sessions with civil society throughout 2018 and 2019 known as Green Conversations. The government’s commitment to this Strategy’s Vision 2040 has been highlighted across several national and international fora, including in its 2019 Budget Speech and at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum and UNFCCC COP25 event. In 2020, work commenced to develop an online platform for monitoring, evaluating and reporting on the Vision 2040, the SDGs and the Paris Agreement. Following the March 2020 general elections, a new Government took office in August 2020 and set its policy priorities for the next five years in line with its reprised Low Carbon Development Strategy with an emphasis on COVID-19 response and recovery, job creation, renewable energy, climate mitigation and adaptation, among others. This contributes to SDG 13, target 13.2 by integrating climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning. It also supports SDG 17, targets 17.14 and 17.16 by enhancing policy coherence and developing country-owned frameworks and tools.
PAGE work on medium-term system dynamics modelling of green economy scenarios across agriculture, energy, forestry and road infrastructure was finalized and synthesized into a “Summary Report for Policy-Makers” released in September 2019. A subsequent phase of integrated modelling is planned to further analyze investment needs, largely through the lens of infrastructure to attain national sustainable development targets. PAGE work to increase the availability of data to identify green investment opportunities and measure progress towards attainment supports SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19.
PAGE is supporting the development of a green economy progress measurement framework, composing of a green economy progress index and a sustainability dashboard, through the provision of stakeholder consultations, training and a calculations exercise in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance. Towards the end of 2020, UNDP with the Ministry of Finance started work focused on the development of an online platform for monitoring and reporting on national development plans, the SDGs and the goals of the Paris Agreement. Data development plans for key sectors are expected in 2021. This contributes towards SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by increasing the availability of data and measurements of progress towards the SDGs.
PAGE has supported the government, academic institutions and businesses in taking ownership of and driving the sustainability agenda, aligning policy initiatives with green economy objectives.
Onboarding of a National Coordinator for Argentina, the commencement of monthly National Steering Committee meetings and a scoping and inception workshop with over 160 participants took place in early 2019, establishing the foundation for PAGE support. Following this, work commenced on the green economy stocktaking study, together with the Theory of Change and Logical Framework, completed in July 2020. Complementing the overall stocktaking study, PAGE, led by UNDP, developed an analytical framework that links the approaches of Just Transition to the Agenda 2030 and SDG-related policies. Further helping to build support for green economic transition in Argentina, PAGE organized a virtual High-Level National Dialogue on Green Economy in December 2020, engaging the three government ministries through which PAGE works. The dialogue will be continued in 2021, including workshops to raise awareness and validate cross-sectoral IGE prioritisation, alongside support for policy analysis and development of policy recommendations.
PAGE, led by UNEP, has advanced the country diagnostics on green performance indicators to provide a decision-making tool for policymakers. The focus of this diagnostic is to develop and prioritize environmental performance indicators and streamline them into a single report that provides a technical basis for informed decision-making on IGE. PAGE is currently utilising the findings of the diagnostic to develop indicators for an environmental information system that will be hosted in the National Environmental Information Centre in 2021.
PAGE’s policy support is centred around Indonesia’s Low Carbon Development Initiative (LCDI) and the National Medium-term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2020-2024. In 2019, as part of the LCDI phase 1 PAGE, along with other development partners, provided support for identifying policy interventions for a green economy modelling exercise, which enabled the integration of IGE policy scenarios into the National Medium-term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2020-2024. In the transition to phase 2 of the LCDI, PAGE supported the development of a framework with five components crucial for the LCDI implementations and a role sharing matrix among the development partners. By developing this phase 2 framework, PAGE also assisted BAPPENAS to transfer the concept of the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Rencana Aksi Nasional-Gas Rumah Kaca) to the LCDI. In this context, key entry points for PAGE work were identified by a green economy stocktaking study that analyzed existing green economy initiatives and policies. This work has contributed to SDG 7, target 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3, SDG 8, target 8.4, SDG 13, target 13.2 and SDG 17, target 17.14, 17.15 and 17.19.
PAGE supported the development of a generic version of the provincial LCDI macro system dynamics model which was completed in June 2020. The model will become an important tool for provinces to translate the national low carbon development approach to the sub-national level as it provides the basis for further modelling at the provincial level. With PAGE’s support, the macro model will be enhanced for each of the three LCDI pilot provinces, taking into account the provincial characteristics, development landscape, and provincial data. PAGE support to the provinces also involves capacity-building for mainstreaming the LCDI approach into the National Medium-term Development Plan (RPJMD), technical assistance to formulate the Provincial Low Carbon Development Plans (RPRKD), as well as an assessment on alternative financing schemes. By strengthening the capacity of the regional government to incorporate LCDI model, this workstream contributes to SDG 13, target 13.2 by integrating climate change into policies.
Led by the Ministry of Energy, a series of activities have contributed to the alignment of IGE goals with national policymaking, which will continue into 2021.
An inception mission took place in early 2019 in Astana with government and non-government stakeholders to identify priority areas for joint action on green economy. A stakeholder workshop on green economy was hosted by the Ministry of Energy, and discussions were held with the Economics and Research Institute of the Ministry of National Economy, the Centre for Green Technology and Investments of the Ministry of Energy, and the Astana Finance Centre.
The mission identified areas for future support and collaboration such as the integration of green economy principles into national strategic planning, sectoral analysis and policy support for key industry sectors (e.g. waste management and agriculture), and foundational and applied learning.
Following the inception mission, work commenced on a stocktaking report to assess the progress towards an inclusive green economy, examine existing policies and initiatives, identify priorities and challenges, and determine entry points for PAGE.
The draft stocktaking report was presented at a validation workshop in November 2019, where a general consensus was reached on the findings and recommendations. The draft study provides an overview of the economic, environmental and social issues facing the country, as well as key national and international stakeholders and partners to be engaged in PAGE work. It reviews the strategic green economy policy documents in Kazakhstan, as well as sectoral and thematic policies that could guide PAGE support in the country.
In collaboration with GIZ, PAGE is supporting the development of Kazakhstan’s National Low Carbon Development Concept until 2050 (LCDC), anticipated for completion in 2021. The LCDC will be based on modelling several scenarios and development pathways in nine sectors until 2050, incorporating social, environmental and economic elements. The focus is on the transformation required within sectors to meet long-term emissions targets and socio-economic goals, taking into account evolutions in technologies and business models. In 2020, PAGE contributed to the development of a policy vision for the waste sector and commenced work to support NDC implementation through fiscal policy reform, with analysis of the energy and housing and public utilities (HPU) sectors.
Additionally, as part of its green advisory support provided to the government in the context of COVID-19, PAGE drafted a chapter on green economy to be incorporated into an updated National Development Strategy Kazakhstan 2025 as one of the seven key policies. This supports SDG 12, targets 12.4, 12.5 and 12.C, SDG 13, target 13.2 by integrating climate change measures into national policies and to SDG 17, targets 17.14, 17.15 and 17.19 by enhancing policy coherence and supporting country-owned frameworks and tools.
PAGE is providing technical advisory support to develop legal tools related to the new Environmental Code (EcoCode) in consultation with key stakeholders. PAGE is contributing to the code’s practical implementation through analysis of best international practices and the development of relevant secondary legislation.
This is focused on four main areas: Environmental Assessment, Best Available Techniques (BAT) based Environmental Permissions System, Environmental Quality Standards and Waste Management. In 2020, various draft legal acts were developed and submitted to the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources (MEGNR). A number of stakeholder consultations have been organized to discuss developed documents, aiming to upgrade the draft legal acts within the first quarter of 2021. This supports SDG 12, targets 12.4 and 12.5 through sustainable waste management and reduction, as well as SDG, target 8.4, by promoting resource efficiency in consumption and production.
Within the work on a COVID-19 response, PAGE supported the second phase of Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of COVID-19 in Kazakhstan, initiated by UN agencies on the ground under the leadership of the UN Resident Coordinator. This will ensure that the assessment covers inclusive, green economy aspects and impacts from the crisis on the green transition.
As a country in the inception phase of PAGE, efforts in India have focused on establishing priorities for PAGE Support.
- Development of a framework and institutional structure for eco-labelling;
- Appraisal of key macro drivers for growth of the economy and employment creation;
- Operationalize and initiate IGE transformative roadmaps for high impact industrial sectors;
- Development of sustainable purchasing criteria for selected product categories;
- Scoping exercise and feasibility study to inform the selection of a possible host entity for Centre of Excellence on SDG 12;
- Development and rollout of course modules and strengthening of training capacity of national civil service institutions in the domain of SDGs and IGE; and
- Assessment of select SDGs for mainstreaming and integrating IGE principles at the national and state levels.
- Development of a framework and institutional structure for eco-labelling in India and preparing ecolabel for one product category in electrical appliances;
- Appraisal of key macro drivers for growth of the economy and employment creation in India and map high impact opportunities to initiate the transition towards inclusive, green growth;
- Operationalize and initiate inclusive, green economy transformative roadmaps for high impact industrial sectors: provisionally, textiles and garments;
- Development of sustainable purchasing criteria for selected product categories;
- Scoping exercise and feasibility study to inform the selection of a possible host entity for Centre of Excellence on SDG 12 and map out key capacities;
- Development and rollout of course modules in the domain of SDGs and IGE, and strengthening of the training capacity of faculty at national civil service training institutions with mandates to train officials in areas pertaining to IGE and resource efficiency; and
- Assessment of select SDGs for mainstreaming and integrating Inclusive Green Economy principles at the national and state levels.
PAGE in India started with a green economy stocktaking study, done jointly with TERI and MoEFCC, which established a baseline and identified priority areas for PAGE support. The study was complemented by comprehensive stakeholder consultations held in 2019 at national and regional levels (including Southern, Western, Northern, and Eastern states). Based on the findings from the stocktaking, shared at the first meeting of the National Steering Committee in November 2020, a PAGE engagement plan was developed to prioritise areas for PAGE engagement with regards to multisectoral, sectoral and thematic, and capacity-building activities. PAGE support focuses on SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production) and synergies with SDG 8 (Employment and Economic Growth), with key areas for 2021 captured below:
In parallel, the MoEFC led the process for the establishment of a National Steering Committee, which was established in January 2020 and, with some delay met for the first time in November 2020 to endorse the forward going country programme for PAGE. The meeting provided an opportunity to also share the findings of the stocktaking study, which provided a significant input for selecting priorities and entry points for support.
Key areas for PAGE support from 2021 are captured below.