Partner countries are implementing evidence-based sectoral and thematic reforms in line with inclusive green economy priorities.
PAGE supports countries and provinces with sectoral and thematic diagnostics, assessments, and policy analysis, and with advisory support, integrated into the design and advancement of sectoral and thematic policies, strategies and plans.
The mobilization of partners to support Inclusive Green Economy (IGE) transformation, including donors, international organizations, civil society, academic and research institutions, and the private sector, is another key area of support.
Achievements to 2020:
- 37 sectoral or thematic policies supporting IGE priorities supported by PAGE in 13 countries (10 additional policies in 5 countries in 2020)
- 85 reports (16 additional reports in 2020) completed, providing sectoral or thematic IGE diagnostics, assessments, and policy analysis
- 161 consultations (30 additional consultations in 2020) held to share results of sectoral policy analysis
- 49 partners in 15 countries (4 additional partners in 2020) formally agreed to co-financing, complementary follow-up programming, pledges, and public-private partnerships
PAGE work in Mongolia has supported the implementation of sectoral and thematic reforms in line with national priorities.
- Public-private investment facility: PAGE – through UNDP – is supporting the establishment of a public-private investment facility. This will ensure a more market-based value chain focusing on herders and cooperatives, including the critical cashmere market. It will support companies that advance climate-resilient livestock management and help reverse long-term pasture degradation, complementing efforts funded by the GCF and GEF. A background analysis for the Mongolia-China Sustainable Fibres Fund Concept Paper was completed in 2020, including a Risk Matrix Preparation and a Fibre Value Chain analysis in China and Mongolia. In 2021, UNDP will prepare an MCSFF proposal and provide support to engage a fund manager. This ongoing work is part of the PAGE Mongolia Sustainability Strategy and aligns with the NGDP and Sustainable Development Vision. It also operates in synergy with other initiatives and with a new GCF proposal at the advanced stage.
PAGE supported the Ministry of Finance (MOF) to incorporate sustainability principles into the national public procurement framework. A status analysis of public procurement, prioritization of goods and a market analysis were conducted. Sustainable public procurement tools and sample tendering materials were developed. The amendment to the Law on Procurement of Goods, Works and Services with State and Local Funds was adopted by the Parliament in March 2019, complemented by a supporting Action Plan that PAGE helped develop. This work contributed to SDG 12, target 12.7, by supporting sustainable procurement of goods and services.
PAGE supported the Mongolian banking sector to develop green and inclusive financial products and services in partnership with the UNEP Finance Initiative. In particular, it supported a study on demand for green credits and contributed to the establishment of a joint working group for creating a Mongolian Green Credit Fund (now Mongolian Green Finance Corporation – MGCF). A multi-partner agreement in support of the Fund/Corporation was signed at the 5th Mongolian Sustainable Finance Forum in September 2017. In October 2017, the government established a Green Development Fund with the aim to apply sustainability to development financing and large-scale public investment projects and since 2019, the Green Finance Corporation has started to provide green credits through three commercial banks.
PAGE is also supporting the establishment of a public-private investment facility to ensure a more market-based value chain focusing on herders and cooperatives, including the critical cashmere market. These activities are aligned to SDG 17, target 17.3, on mobilizing additional financial resources, and SDG 8, target 8.10 by strengthening the capacity of domestic financial institutions.
The goals of the National Green Development Policy (NGDP) around energy efficiency standards and a rating system for green buildings were translated into the 2019 State Policy on Construction. PAGE support has included the development of a handbook on green school buildings and the design for a green school building showcasing how to achieve energy efficiency standards. Completed in 2016, the design can be applied to the more than 220 schools that need to be built over the next 3-4 years, with a prototype school already built.
PAGE also supported the formulation of a business case for green buildings and provided capacity-building for stakeholders in the construction sector to foster up-take of green design elements for public and private buildings. PAGE also supported the establishment of a multi-stakeholder Green Buildings Advisory Council.
These efforts contributed to SDG 11, target 11.3, and SDG 13, targets 13.1 and 13.2, by integrating climate change measures into national policies and by enhancing sustainable urbanization. The focus on green and climate-resilient buildings supported SDG 7, target 7.2, by promoting renewable energy and SDG 12, target 12.5, through use of recycled building materials.
Following a study on industrial waste management and the recycling industry, PAGE carried out a baseline study on waste from end of life vehicles to determine the feasibility for local SMEs to process and recycle waste together with financing solutions. This work was advanced through approval of the renewed Law of Mongolia on Waste Management in May 2017 that aims to reduce the negative impacts of waste. This work supported SDG 12, targets 12.4 and 12.5, by promoting environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes, as well as reducing waste generation.
PAGE, together with the UN Environment Trade Hub, completed a study on trade and green economy. The report takes stock of trade-related green economy policies, analyzes opportunities and barriers and provides specific insights into the meat and cashmere sectors. From the study, a policy brief was constructed to inform the development of a green trade policy. This work was aligned to SDG 17, targets 17.9. and 17.11, aimed at increasing green trade opportunities, including through South-South cooperation.
To sustain results from the five-year period of PAGE support to Mongolia, follow-up work is continuing and synergies with complementary initiatives are being explored.
PAGE has supported decent work, as well as green policies across industry, agriculture and forestry, water, transportation and solid waste.
- A proposal on guidelines for the certification of good practices to support the competitiveness of the forestry sector;
- Two short-term policy proposals related to sustainable agriculture, including increasing the use of quality seeds and expansion of cooperatives;
- Background research for the design of financial mechanisms to implement mitigation measures in the agricultural sector, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MINAGRI);
- An evaluation of initiatives to inform the development of a low-emission cattle raising strategy (linked to the National Livestock Development Plan);
- A policy proposal to improve the 042 Budget Program related to Water Resources, and a study on the water footprint of agro-export crops; and
- Formulation of a pilot project in Arequipa on waste management training to encourage sustainable business activities and promote green jobs.
PAGE supported the creation of green jobs on provincial and national levels. This has contributed to SDG 8, target 8.5, by promoting decent work and SDG 10, target 10.4, by supporting greater equality:
PAGE assisted the incorporation of green growth objectives into regional youth employment plans to provide young people with job opportunities. Regional youth employment plans were prepared for Arequipa, Piura, La Libertad and Cajamarca. In Piura and Arequipa, these plans were enacted through regional ordinances.
PAGE supported the development of the National Green Jobs Plan, with the final draft discussed in October 2018. The Ministry of Labour and Employment Promotion (MTPE) has incorporated actions from this Plan into its 2019 institutional plan, with several activities funded by the public budget. In 2019, PAGE supported two products of the Green Jobs Plan: i) operational definition of green jobs, together with a future measurement system; and ii) the systematization of good practices regarding green jobs. In 2019, the MTPE prepared a proposal for a National Decent Employment Policy.
In 2017, PAGE and the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) developed recommendations for a National Green Industrial Policy, which fed into the National Productivity and Competitiveness Plan. This work was complemented by a series of forums on green industry between 2017 and 2018. The way forward for green industry was further specified through a Circular Economy Roadmap endorsed by stakeholders in October 2019. This contributes to SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting sustainable industrialization and SDG 12, target 12.1 by supporting sustainable production and consumption.
Building on the Guidelines for Green Growth, PAGE supported the initiation of sectoral policy measures between 2016 and 2018, including:
This supports SDG 17, targets 17.1 and 17.5 on domestic resource mobilization and investment, SDG 12, target 12.5, by reducing waste generation and SDG 8, target 8.5 by promoting decent work.
PAGE conducted a study on green business models for urban transport, which was discussed with the public and private sectors, civil society and trade unions in June 2019. This study lends support to the National Mitigation Action on sustainable urban transport. More broadly, Peru established the Urban Transportation Authority for the cities of Lima and Callao in December 2018, based on recommendations of a PAGE-supported study on opportunities for green growth from 2017. This contributes to SDG 11, target 11.2, by providing access to sustainable transport.
PAGE supported the formulation of the teleworking strategy in 2015. Following the adoption of a Pact for Teleworking in 2017, a more comprehensive national policy proposal was developed with assistance from PAGE, aiming to reduce the environmental footprint of workers, while promoting the inclusion of women and people with disabilities in the labor market. Several international and national events were held throughout 2016 and 2017 to raise awareness and share best practices. These consultations supported the development of a national policy proposal on teleworking, which was subsumed into the proposal for a National Decent Employment Policy. This has contributed to SDG 8, target 8.5, by promoting decent work and SDG 10, target 10.4, by supporting greater equality.
PAGE identified four priority areas aligned with the Plan Senegal Emergent (PSE), backed by the findings of the original Green Economy Assessment from 2013. These are outlined below, with additional information related to entrepreneurship included under Strengthening Capacity.
- Formulation of the National Strategy on Green Jobs identifying avenues for green job creation and priorities for policy support and being integrated into the National Employment Policy;
- Implementation of the above policy through the PACEV (le Programme d’Appui à la Création d’Opportunités d’Emplois Verts) — a programme that aims to build knowledge and skills in the field of environment and business management, address low qualification levels and help stakeholders formulate promising and bankable projects;
- Support to a Public-Private Partnership for the establishment of an incubator for the green economy and green jobs, involving private companies, higher technical education institutions and government agencies;
- Development of methodology for data collection and statistical analysis of green jobs creation that was integrated into the National Employment Survey; and
- A Study on Skills for Green Jobs that helped to identify the skills needed in emerging occupations and rapidly growing industries in the context of greening the economy.
With a young active population, Senegal’s labour market is characterized by a constant stream of new workers, providing opportunities for green job creation. PAGE has provided the following support aligned to SDGs 8 and 17, particularly targets 8.5 and 17.14, on productive employment and decent work, and on enhancing policy coherence. This has also contributed to SDG 5, target 5.C, by promoting gender equality:
In 2015, PAGE engaged in a partnership with the National Programme on Energy Efficiency and Use of Local Material for Sustainable Construction to support training and the development of guidelines for the application of technical norms and standards on sustainable construction materials and energy efficiency. Through support to the renovation of the polytechnic school in the town of Thies, a building was developed showcasing energy efficiency standards. This was complemented by training sessions in 2015 and 2016 on the use of local material for construction, involving artisans and women’s groups. This contributes to SDG 12, target 12.5, by using recycled building materials and promoting low-carbon production, as well as SDG 5, target 5.C, by supporting gender equality.
In 2015, PAGE established a partnership with the National Programme on Waste Management to support capacity-building activities for local institutions, SMEs and community groups with a focus on entrepreneurship and management skills as well as occupational health and safety. In May 2017, PAGE participated in a national forum on waste management in Dakar as part of its work to build the institutional capacity of cooperatives set-up to support waste collection and central sorting. ILO and the charitable foundation WEIGO have taken this work forward by developing a pilot project to establish cooperatives amongst waste pickers in Mbeubeuss – the largest open-air landfill in West Africa. In August 2019, they co-organized a workshop involving national institutions in waste management. This drew on the findings of a scoping study on the waste site and presented the option of a cooperative, stimulating national media attending and integrating workers into the discussion. In 2020, the ILO and WIEGO completed the ‘Rapid Assessment of the Waste Management Market in Senegal’ and ‘Rapid Assessment of the Potentials of a Cooperative Approach in Waste Management in Senegal’ to support economic formalization and social inclusion for waste pickers. This support SDG 12, target 12.4, on reducing waste generation and SDG 8, target 8.5, on decent work for all.
A green industry assessment was completed in 2015 to support the PSE objectives on industrialization. This was followed by a High-Level Roundtable on Green Industry in May 2017, as part of the Institute for Economic Development and Planning’s policy dialogue series. With PAGE support, the Ministry of Industry formulated several recommendations for an Action Plan for a Green Industrialization in Africa and for Senegal, in particular. This contributes to SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting sustainable industrialization and SDG 12, target 12.1, by incorporating sustainable production and consumption.
PAGE has concentrated efforts on influencing policy debates on the use of expected revenues from oil and gas to promote sustainable development. Analytical work resulted in a study entitled ‘Funds and Mechanisms for the Management of Oil and Gas Revenues to Support Sustainable Development: Insights from Country Experiences and Lessons for Senegal’. Since its launch in 2018, the study has become a reference document, informing national dialogues and discussions, such as the third National Sustainable Development Conference held in May 2018 and a session by the High Council on Social Dialogue in July 2019, mandated by the President of Senegal to play a central role in the national dialogue around oil and gas. PAGE’s support for the sustainable management of oil and gas revenue contributes to SDG 8, target 8.4, by endeavoring to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation.
PAGE work has centred on three key thematic areas: sustainable finance, green jobs and resource efficiency.
PAGE conducted a study on access to and opportunities for scaling up green finance in Ghana. The study assessed sustainability integration within business sector operations and value chains and identified green finance interventions, investment opportunities and barriers. A working group with representatives from the Ministry of Finance, MESTI, Private Enterprises Federation, Bankers Association of Ghana, and the Bank of Ghana provided technical support and guidance for the process. PAGE completed the green finance study in 2019, with a set of recommendations and proposed actions under discussion with the Public Service Commission (PSC). The work supports SDG 17, target 17.3, on mobilizing additional financial resources from multiple resources, and target 17.16, by facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships.
PAGE has worked to develop a strategy for green jobs in line with Ghana’s NDCs. This was identified as a gap at the 2018 event “Ghana National Dialogue on Decent Work and Just Transition to an Environmentally Sustainable Economy and Society for All”. A national study on skills for green jobs was finalized in 2020, aimed at identifying needs, gaps and recommendations to meet the capacity demands in Ghana. The study contributes to the development of a National Strategy on Green Jobs, expected to provide a framework to operationalize Ghana’s National Employment Policy. PAGE supported the drafting of the National Strategy on Green Jobs and the framework of an Action Plan in 2020, which will be further refined by national stakeholders.
Additionally, PAGE is supporting the construction of an economic model with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure the impacts on jobs of Ghana’s NDC and develop a set of labour market policies that could complement policies on climate change mitigation and adaptation under development. The efforts to promote skills for green jobs contribute to SDG 8, target 8.5, focused on decent work for all.
PAGE has supported tailor-made training activities, including a 2019 workshop for firms in the steel and palm oil sectors, together with resource efficiency demonstrations. PAGE collaborated with the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Ghana National Cleaner Production Centre and the Association of Ghana Industries for wider consultation and advice during the demonstration. In 2020, PAGE completed further pilot studies on energy audits and efficiency for the palm oil and steel sectors. Building on lessons learned from these sectors, PAGE is exploring opportunities to support the government in its ambition to develop a national industrial efficiency policy and programme. The work has raised awareness about the benefits of energy efficiency and related methodologies within government institutions and industry in Ghana and also presented applicable resource efficiency programmes in South Africa and Tunisia that could be adopted in Ghana. These efforts contribute to SDG 8, specifically targets 8.2 and 8.3 on achieving higher levels of economic productivity, and SDG 9, target 9.2 on promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization.
PAGE’s work in Mauritius has spanned several sectors and cross-cutting themes with far-reaching consequences identified in the National Vision, including poverty reduction, industrial waste management, SME finance, green jobs, and public expenditure on climate change.
A focus of the National Vision is commitment to improve inclusiveness and reduce poverty. PAGE directly supported the development of the Marshall Plan Against Poverty, launched as part of the 2016-17 national budget, and the drafting of targeted policy measures to prevent extreme poverty. Its most important proposal — the Marshall Plan Social Contract — provides financial assistance to households found eligible under the Social Register of Mauritius for families in poverty. Funding for the Social Contract has been earmarked in successive national budget speeches. This supports SDG 1, target 1.4 on ensuring all men and women, particularly the poor and vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources.
PAGE supported Mauritius’ goal of greening industry by conducting an Industrial Waste Assessment to provide strategic guidance for national policymakers in 2016. The assessment quantified the amount and main categories of industrial waste being generated in selected industries and provided insights into the legislative framework. It also identified opportunities for the reuse and recycling of industrial waste, providing guidance for the development of a sustainable manufacturing industry. As a follow-up, PAGE began surveying enterprises in 2020 to examine industrial waste management costs and develop recommendations on circular economy and the concept of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). This work is aligned to SDGs 9 and 12, targets 9.5b and 12.5 on upgrading the technological capacities of industrial sectors, ensuring a conducive policy environment for industrial development and promoting the reduction of waste.
According to Mauritius’ 10-Year SME Master Plan, SMEs are encouraged to adopt sustainable production practices and showcase eco-business. As a step to improve SMEs’ access to finance, a Forum on Green Business Development was organized in May 2018, to discuss issues related to sustainable procurement and access to green financing. Subsequently, stakeholder consultations were held in July 2019 and a national technical working group initiated a study on access to green finance. A draft was completed in 2020, with a virtual workshop planned for 2021 to share recommendations. This work supports SDG 17, target 17.3, on mobilizing additional financial resources, and target 17.16, by facilitating partnerships.
The country’s green jobs assessment model is being updated by a local modeller from the University of Mauritius with support from PAGE. This model projects the effects of the country’s NDCs on economy-wide employment effects, including green jobs. The preliminary findings were presented to national stakeholders in a workshop on macroeconomic effects of COVID-19, organized by the UN Resident Coordinator Office, the World Bank and the University of Mauritius in 2020. In addition, PAGE completed the first draft of a roadmap for identifying and developing skills needed for green jobs in 2020. This work supports SDGs 8 and 17, by promoting decent work and building partnerships.
The Public Environment Expenditure Review (PEER), supported by PAGE, sparked interest in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development to introduce climate finance tracking tools within the budget process and the Treasury Accounting System. PAGE assisted the Ministry to develop a methodology and training enabling policy officials to conduct an annual computation of total public sector environmental expenditure. This will facilitate the integration of climate change measures into the national budget process, contributing to SDGs 8, 9 and 13.
PAGE has supported reforms across thematic and sectoral areas, including sustainable agriculture, sustainable trade and green industry.
Agriculture, which accounts for more than 30 per cent of GDP in Burkina Faso and employs over 90 per cent of the labour force, has been a key area for green economy action. In 2018, PAGE launched discussions with the Permanent Secretariat for the Coordination of Sectoral Agricultural Policies in order to integrate green economy principles into the implementation of the second National Rural Sector Programme (PNSR 2), adopted in early 2018.
Programme implementation and mainstreaming of IGE began in 2020, with a study on the impact of artisanal mining on sustainable agriculture completed and shared at a national validation workshop in November 2020. This is aligned with SDG 2, target 2.4, by working to ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices.
The adoption of the Action Plan for the Sustainable Management and Export of NTFPs was informed by a PAGE supported study on green trade and NTFPs. It aims to make the trade of these products more sustainable, efficient and competitive as well as more profitable to the national economy.
The adoption was followed by a training of stakeholders on Sustainable Trade in September 2019. Trainees came from the following institutions: ministries in charge of the Environment, Trade, Handicraft and Industry; small and medium enterprises in the NTPF sector; certification agencies; and representatives of the exports promotion agency (APEX). This work contributes to SDG 15, target 15.1, by promoting the sustainable use of forest areas, and SDG 17, target 17.11, by promoting increased exports from developing countries.
PAGE supported the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Handicrafts in conducting a Green Industry Assessment and developing a National Industrial Strategy with a focus on greening Burkina Faso’s industry sector. To inform the content of the strategy, which was adopted in April 2019, PAGE supported the collection of baseline information on industries, presented various policy options and related trade-offs as well as short- and long-term measures to enable the transition to a green economy via industry. This work contributes to SDGs 9 and 17, targets 9.2 and 17.14, by promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization and enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development.
PAGE has supported South Africa across a variety of sectors in stimulating dialogue and collaboration to increase understanding, accelerate reform and support ownership.
PAGE has supported national dialogues to strengthen the transition towards sustainable energy, including a multi-stakeholder debate convened under the OR Tambo Debate Series. The 2017 debate on renewable energy and industrialization accelerated policy reform in the energy sector. Also using this platform, PAGE collaborated with the National Planning Commission to engage youth and labour constituents for a social compact on pathways for a Just Transition to a low-carbon society (with roundtables held in 2018 and 2019 respectively). This contributed to the work of the National Planning Commission through a review of the National Development Plan Chapter 5 (2030-2050) and development of the ‘2050 Vision and Pathways for a Just Transition to a Low Carbon, Climate Resilient Economy and Society’ finalized in 2019. This work contributes to SDGs 10 and 17, targets 10.2 and 17.16, by promoting the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age or sex, and by supporting multi-stakeholder partnerships.
In 2016, PAGE produced the Green Economy Industry and Trade Analysis, to identify areas offering particular trade opportunities for green industrial development. A further sector-specific assessment on green industry and trade led to a set of recommendations. The analysis informed the Bio-composite Action Plan and Implementation Strategy completed in 2018, and a feasibility study for biomaterials launched at the Bio Africa Convention in August 2020. This work supports SDG 8, target 8.2, by facilitating diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, SDG 9, target 9.B, by supporting domestic technology development, research and innovation, and SDG 12, target 12.4, by promoting the environmentally sound management of all wastes throughout their life cycle.
South Africa’s water crisis has presented an opportunity to re-examine policies in relation to water. PAGE is collaborating with the DEFF to update the previously developed SAGEM report that used dynamics modelling to assess the impacts of green investments in select sectors. This includes an update of the modelling to include the water-biodiversity nexus, with a sub-national focus on the provinces worst affected by the water crisis. This work supports the achievement of SDG 15, targets 15.1 and 15.9, by promoting the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and by integrating ecosystem and biodiversity values into national development planning. It also contributes to SDG 17, target 17.18, by enhancing capacity to produce high-quality data.
In May 2018, PAGE contributed to a high-level roundtable discussion on skills in RET by conducting a diagnostic on the RET sector to identify areas of growth and development and their implications for skills needs in these areas. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.2, by facilitating diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, SDG 9, target 9.B, by supporting domestic technology development, research and innovation, and SDG 17, target 17.7, by promoting the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies.
PAGE has continued to support sectoral and thematic reforms, with a focus on green industry, green trade and green jobs.
China has paved the way for developing Green Industrial Parks, completing work on national and international levels to quantify and promote their benefits, as highlighted:
Measuring progress towards green industrialisation
The Green Industry Progress (GIPro) Index was developed, covering economic, environmental and social aspects of green transition of industries in 18 Chinese provinces. The assessment provides a picture of advancement for each province, with specific policy recommendations. This facilitated development of a research paper ‘Green Evaluation of Industrial Firms in China’, included in GGKP’s Green Industry Platform.
Supporting the green transition of industrial parks
A Green Industrial Park Assessment Study was carried out in Jiangsu and a Policy Guideline developed, taking stock of the policy instruments affecting green industrial parks. The results were summarized in the publication ‘Green Transformation of Industrial Parks in China’s Jiangsu Province: A Synthesis Report’ and launched in April 2019 at the International Seminar on Green Industrial Parks.
Measuring transformation against international standards
A pilot study to assesses the performance of four Jiangsu industrial parks against the UNIDO/World Bank/GIZ International Framework of EIPs was developed into a report in February 2019. The findings were used to support the development of consolidated industrial park guidelines.
Supporting industrial synergies
A study on ‘policy guidance for identifying specific measures for industrial symbiosis and synergy opportunities in industrial parks’ with the focus on Shanghai province was completed in 2019. Building on this, PAGE plans to develop a bankable project prototype to further investigate the identified industrial symbiosis opportunities and to get access to green credits from available financial sources, in cooperation with UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office, ITPO China (Shanghai). Also in line with this workstream, a training workshop on EIP policy support and industrial symbiosis tools took place on 2-4 December 2019, targeting stakeholders from provincial government and park management in Jiangsu as part of the PAGE week. Support for green industrial parks contributes to SDGs 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13 by implementing programmes on sustainable consumption; increasing the share of renewable energy and high-tech industries; improving energy efficiency; promoting decent work for all; upgrading infrastructure and industries to promote sustainable industrialization; ensuring a conducive policy environment when supporting technology development, research and innovation; and integrating climate change measures into policies, strategies and planning.
The PAGE Environment and Trade Hub conducted a study on South-South trade in environmental goods and services and collaborated with the Research Institute for Global Value Chain (RIGVC) for a baseline assessment of sustainable textile trade and value-chains. The studies provided the basis for multi-sectoral workshops and trainings on trade in environmentally-sound technologies and sustainable textile value-chains, and summarised good practices shared at international events. This is aligned to SDG 17 through increasing green trade opportunities.
PAGE has supported work in several sectoral and thematic areas to address critical issues relating to sustainability and social inclusion
PAGE has supported Mato Grosso to develop a strategy in the area of renewable energy, as an input to the State Renewable Energy Policy being developed. This included an evaluation of the technical and economic potential for generation and use of renewable energy – particularly solar energy and biomass sources – conducted by UFMT. This analysis fed into the development of the Renewable Energy Development Strategic Plan, officially launched alongside the study in September 2020. In 2021, a strategy and implementation programme will be developed for the generation of energy from agroforestry and agricultural wastes. This work contributes to SDG 7, target 7.2, by aiming to increase the share of renewables, and SDG 12, target 12.5, by contributing to the reduction of waste through recycling and reuse.
Sustainable agriculture and social inclusion
Several activities have been completed to support sustainable agricultural practices that also address issues related to greater inclusion of families in rural settlements as set out as a priority in the PCI:
PAGE has been supporting the development of processes and tools for the implementation of the SEIAF and its subsystems – which serve to promote sustainable development and poverty eradication under the State Agricultural Policy. Going forward, PAGE plans to support the revision and review process for the existing State Family Farming Plan – a policy document that seeks sustainable development of family farming.
Rural Environmental Registration
PAGE has provided support to the Rural Environmental Registration, as a tool to allow farmers to access financial and technical programmes and services. In 2020, PAGE helped to complete a diagnostic of Socioeconomic, Productive and Environmental Factors of the Vale do Mangaval Rural Settlement in Cáceres-MT, which will help to advance the development of Environmental Regularization Policy for Rural Settlements with the State Secretariat of Environment (SEMA) and will contribute to the Environmental Policy of the State of Mato Grosso. Together with the work on family agriculture, this contributes to SDG 2, target 2.3, by working to improve productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, and target 2.4, by promoting sustainable agriculture.
PAGE work in the tourism sector is aimed at strengthening sustainability elements in the Mato Grosso State Government Tourism Policy, currently under development. In 2020, PAGE has supported dissemination and application of the guidelines through training workshops, which will continue in 2021. Work has focused on the preparation of a study on sustainable tourism products. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.9, by promoting policies for sustainable tourism that create jobs, and SDG 12, target 12.B, by developing and implementing tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism.
Work has been undertaken to safeguard the Historic centre of Mato Grosso and support sustainable development of its municipalities as follows:
Management Plan for Cuiabá
PAGE has supported the elaboration of a sustainable management plan for Cuiabá, which will serve the State Government as a roadmap to guide decision-making to strive for a more sustainable and resilient city.
Participatory Municipal Development Master Plans
PAGE has been working to promote universal access to the benefits generated by the Participatory Municipal Development Master Plans for municipalities with a population of less than 20,000. The Participative Master Plan was adopted in March and approved by the legislative of Salto do Céu Municipality in December 2020 to become the binding Municipal Master Plan Law. PAGE support for the above contributes to SDG 11, target 11.3, by promoting inclusive and sustainable urbanization, and target 11.4, by working to protect and safeguard cultural heritage.
PAGE is supporting the development of green employment and income generation opportunities in targeted economic sectors. In 2020, a tool for assessing the income and employment generation potential in different economic sectors was completed, highlighting sectors that provide the most significant opportunities for green job creation. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.4 by decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation.
Since 2019, the Federation of Industries has been partnering with PAGE to produce a Green Industrial Development Policy focused on developing a Strategy for the forest-based sector. This will contribute to SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting sustainable industrialisation and SDG 12, target 12.1 by incorporating sustainable production and consumption into national policies.
PAGE work has focused on the identification of priority sectors for support, as well as the inclusion of specific sectoral and thematic policy documents into the newly adopted Green Economy Development Programme. PAGE progress on sectoral and thematic reform as well as areas of focus for 2020 are highlighted below.
In 2018, PAGE together with GIZ, OSCE and the OECD supported the development of a Sustainable Finance Roadmap. Presented at a Policy Dialogue in June 2018, this Roadmap has been incorporated into the Green Economy Development Programme. In 2020, PAGE began supporting the implementation of this section of the Programme, focusing on the analysis of existing legislative framework relevant to sustainable finance and the level of its enforcement and capacity-building on the principles of the Sustainable Finance. In line with this, PAGE released a report in May 2020 ‘Investment opportunities for the development of a green economy in Kyrgyzstan’, which analyzed possible directions for green investments in Kyrgyzstan and provided recommendations. This work contributes to achieving SDG 17, target 17.3, by supporting the mobilization of financial resources for developing countries.
PAGE provided expertise on analysis of legislation on urban development with emphasis on green economy and developed recommendations to integrate the aspects of inclusive green economy in the context of climate change into the legal and normative acts (LNA) and normative-technical documents (NTD) on sustainable development with focus on territorial-spatial planning, comprehensive development of green city-building, increasing energy-efficiency in city infrastructure construction, taking into account gender aspects and the Sustainable Development Goals. A specific event was held at the 2019 Green Economy Week on how green economy approaches can drive modern urban development in big cities, facilitating exchange of ideas and collaboration. This work supports SDG 11, target 11.3, by making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable for all.
In 2019, PAGE commenced support in the area of sustainable agriculture, starting with an in-depth assessment of specific subsidies and taxes and potential subsidy reform scenarios. This work is complementary to BIOFIN’s activity on reforming environmentally harmful agricultural subsides. This will provide further in-depth assessment of specific subsides and taxes and potential reform options, including the scale and potential use of revenues. This work contributes to SDG 13, target 13.2 by integrating climate change measures into national policies.
In 2018, PAGE completed an assessment of green industry and trade that was used as a chapter for the Green Economy Development Programme. In 2019 the Government approved the National Sustainable Industrial Development Strategy supported by the UNIDO programme for country partnership (PCP). Building on this Strategy and the GITA, PAGE plans to take this work forward with the development of a National Industrial Resource Efficiency Policy based on the resource efficiency demonstration on metal and cement industry. This work contributes to SDG 7, target 7.3, by seeking to improve energy efficiency and SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting sustainable industrialization. It also supports SDG 12 target 12.2, though improving industrial resource efficiency and waste reduction.
In 2018, PAGE finalized a Skills for Green Jobs Assessment outlining challenges and opportunities relating to capacity development in priority sectors to meet future skills needs. PAGE has also been supporting the development of the Green Jobs Assessment Model (GJAM) prototype to inform the impact of green policies on the labour market and household income distribution. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.5, by supporting decent work and SDG 17, target 17.14, by promoting policy coherence.
A Green Economy Assessment completed in 2015 identified priority areas that could drive a green economy transition in Uruguay, including agriculture, livestock, industry and tourism. These findings contributed to the implementation of PAGE activities.
Together with key government institutions, PAGE has been developing public policies to promote the greening of traditionally “brown” productive activities. Specially, PAGE has played an important role in addressing issues related to artisanal brick production. This includes organizing the first international event on Cleaner Production and Formalization of Brick Production Activities in May 2019. Since October 2019, PAGE has been supporting the creation of the Pando Brick Production School and Park to provide theoretical and practical training in the production of bricks, incorporate good practices, promote efficiency, improve marketing conditions and improve working conditions. Finally, throughout November 2019, PAGE organized capacity-building workshops on raw materials and cleaner production throughout Uruguay. This work contributes to SDG 8, target 8.3, by promoting productive activities that support sustainable development objectives.
Since 2018, PAGE has been supporting the design and implementation of policies to relieve tensions between industrial activities and residential areas in metropolitan Montevideo. In March 2019, a final report was completed characterising an urban zone that shows tensions between leather tannery activities and residential use. The conclusions and lessons learnt from this report serve as an important input for the design of public policy addressing this issue. This work supports SDG 11, target 11.3 by enhancing inclusive and sustainable urbanisation.
Steps have been taken to support the development of a circular economy as a key component of a green economy transition. The immediate focus has been the development of a National Action Plan on Circular Economy, as well as the launching of the National Circular Economy Awards. This continued in 2020, with the Circular Opportunities Sectoral Fund. In addition, PAGE has commissioned a study to design and implement a monitoring and evaluation system for the National Circular Economy Plan, which is expected to be finalized in April 2021. This work contributes to SDG 12, target 12.5, by reducing waste generation.
PAGE is supporting a programme for the greening of micro, small and medium sized enterprises, with an emphasis on cleaner production and labour formalization. In 2018, PAGE collaborated with the Energy Efficiency Programme of the National Directorate of Energy to create an app that helps businesses to improve their energy efficiency. In December 2019, a company was selected to design and implement this tool. This workstream supports SDG 8, targets 8.3 and 8.4, by promoting resource efficiency and supporting productive activities, job creation and labour formalization. It also contributes to SDG 12, target 12.A, by supporting scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable consumption and production.
PAGE collaborated with Plan Ceibal (a national initiative providing information and communication technology equipment to primary and secondary schools), in the development of prototypes of locking brick-like blocks that use recycled plastics recovered from disused computer equipment from Plan Ceibal devices. Finalized in August 2019, the prototypes are being used as furniture in schools and educational spaces. This contributes to SDG 12, target 12.5, by reducing waste generation.
PAGE work contributes specifically to key sectoral and thematic priority areas identified in the Green State Development Strategy.
To support the development of green industry in Guyana, PAGE conducted a Green Industry Trade Assessment in December 2018. The assessment plays a crucial role in identifying both potential policy reforms and new policies to support the transition to green industrial production and trade, and subsequently provided inputs to the finalization of the Green State Development Strategy. Furthermore, in 2020 PAGE commenced development of efficiency and waste management guidelines in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture to support a more resource efficient and competitive fruits and vegetables value chain, particularly for coconuts. PAGE support for green industry contributes to SDG 9, target 9.2 by promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, as well as SDG 17, target 17.11, by promoting exports for developing countries.
In 2018, PAGE began work on a Green Jobs Assessment Model, with the current focus on data analysis and capacity-building. When completed in 2021, this will provide an economy-wide analysis of the sectors with the greatest potential for employment and fair work, assessing gaps and analytical challenges, while also identifying measures to protect the environment. This supports SDG 8, target 8.5, by promoting decent work for all, as well as SDG 17, target 17.14, by enhancing policy coherence across economic, social and environmental dimensions.
In October 2018, PAGE co-organized the Guyana International Small Business Expo and Summit, participated in plenary sessions in the Green Expo, and sponsored a booth for the display of agro-processing products of an indigenous women’s group. The event provided small-scale entrepreneurs with an opportunity to showcase green and innovative products, as well as a platform for representatives from 16 countries to exchange information and experiences in green economy initiatives. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.3, by supporting entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation.
PAGE, led by UNEP, is specifically supporting the development of a fiscal policy strategy and road map in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Finance, to incentivize the transformation to more sustainable agriculture, decent jobs and better working conditions. In 2020, this work was launched in September with a scoping study on fiscal policy reforms for sustainable agriculture. The fiscal policy is linked to the Agriculture Ministry’s new Sector Strategy 2020-2030 and complemented by capacity-building activities on fiscal policies and trade and industrial policy. These activities will contribute to SDG 8, target 8.3, by supporting green productive activities and SDG 17, targets 17.14 and 17.15, by enhancing policy coherence, encouraging domestic resource mobilization and promoting investment.
Several events and activities have taken place in relation to waste management, green industry and green jobs, in line with priority areas identified by the Argentinian government. These will form the basis of workstreams focused on sectoral and thematic policy reforms.
- A Green Jobs Fair in September 2019 in Buenos Aires, bringing together over 700 young people, government, employers and private sector representatives;
- A follow on engagement September 2019 with the Strategic Urban Planning Council of the Buenos Aires City, where the PAGE Coordinator, with IMO representatives, taught a course on Green Jobs and Just Transition;
- In November 2019, PAGE Argentina, together with the Institute for Youth of the National Ministry of Social Development (INJUVE) and the National Secretary for Labour Security and Safety, organized a “Youth Hackathon on Green Jobs and Just Transition”;
- In October 2019, PAGE collaborated with other ILO initiatives to organize a dialogue on green economy and decent work; and
- PAGE, in collaboration with the ILO Project OFFSIDE, held a webinar on green economy and the Just Transition as part of the 2019 Webinar Series on Decent Work in Agriculture that is implemented jointly with the National Institute for Agricultural Technology (INTA).
PAGE, led by ILO and the National University of Tres de Febrero, have finalized an assessment of the effects of the transition to a green economy on the labour market. Composed of five interrelated studies that provided inputs for different elements of the country’s IGE transition, the study will feed into the design and implementation of policies aimed at promoting a fair transition process, specifically the National Plan for the Promotion of Green Employment. Additionally, in September 2020, the creation of a “Green Jobs and Just Transition Board” coordinated by the Ministry of Labour at the National Cabinet of Ministers on Climate Change was announced, providing a mechanism for green economy issues promoted by PAGE to be officially captured by a central policy-making mechanism.
In 2019, PAGE supported the establishment of a Competitiveness Board for the Circular Economy within the Ministry of Production. Using this mechanism, PAGE has supported a first industrial mapping being developed by sector representatives in a participatory manner. In 2020, PAGE supported the establishment of the “Sustainable Production Board” which will facilitate PAGE’s work in the area of circular economy. Furthermore, the development of both a National Plan for the Promotion of the Circular Economy and a related Fiscal Impact Study was launched by PAGE in November 2020 and is being taken forward jointly by UNIDO and the Ministry of Production. Additionally, PAGE contributed to the Second International Congress on Integral Management of Urban Solid Waste (GIRSU) organized in June 2019 in San Juan with the aim to strengthen decision making and institutional quality of the integrated management of urban solid waste.
PAGE Argentina has supported various events and initiatives helping to promote awareness of green jobs and just transition, especially in a youth context. This includes:
PAGE has explored different avenues to support Argentina in the development of sustainable finance, with first results achieved at a sub-regional level. In 2020, PAGE led by UNDP, developed a financial instrument with the Public Bank of the Federal State of Chaco, which is based on Ecosystem Valuation and will be replicated in other Provinces. Furthermore, PAGE, also led by UNDP, plans to develop a financial stimulus strategy that is intended to serve the Active Labour Market Policies of the Ministry of Labour, as well as the National Investment Bank for Development (BICE) of the Ministry of Production. Going forward, this work will be closely aligned with the support on green economic recovery, which will specifically embed the use of financial instruments.
On 22 October 2019, PAGE Indonesia carried out a validation workshop of the recently developed Green Industry and Trade pre-Assessment (GITA). The assessment focused on resource efficiency, energy intensity and other relevant indicators of the IGE, in four industry sectors: pulp and paper, cement, fertilizer, and food and beverage. Building on the findings, PAGE started the process to develop a resource efficiency assessment in the fertilizer industry in 2020, to develop policy recommendations in line with the LCDI. This contributes to SDG 7, target 7.3, by seeking to improve energy efficiency and SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialisation. It also supports SDG 12 target 12.2, though improving industrial resource efficiency and waste reduction.
Directly linked to the targets of the LCDI, and building on the earlier support in 2019, PAGE commenced the development of LCDI energy sub-model with the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in January 2020. By providing a tool to assess policy scenarios, this work aims to support the government, specifically MEMR and BAPPENAS, to accomplish better planning in the energy sector and align with the targets of the national LCDI strategy and on GHG emission reduction. The intended result will support achievement of SDG 7, SDG 8 and SDG 13, with focus on providing strategic and readiness assessment on ‘just transition’ in the energy sector, consistent with UN Climate Action for Jobs Initiative.
UNDP Indonesia through its Innovative Financing Lab (IFL), is assisting the Government of Indonesia to develop the world’s first framework for blue financial instrument, with work initiated in 2018. In October 2019, the Blue Financing Framework was launched during the Archipelagic and Island State Forum in Manado, Indonesia. Through its IFL, UNDP also continues to support the Green “Sukuk” Bond. In February 2018, the first Green “Sukuk” Bond was launched, by the Ministry of Finance and in 2020, with PAGE support, UNDP assisted MOF to publish a Second Green Sukuk Allocation and Impact Report in early March 2020, which provides insights into how the proceeds have been used. This work contributes to SDG 17, target 17.3, by supporting the mobilisation of financial resources for developing countries.
Under the Green Economy Transformation (GET) project implemented by UNEP and GIZ, Indonesia has been selected as one of the partner countries to receive support in the area of green fiscal policy. UNEP took part in a mission to Jakarta (9-12 July 2019) to attend a project kick-off meeting with the Ministry of Finance and to consult with UNDP and other organizations working on carbon pricing issues in Indonesia to identify synergies and opportunities for collaboration.
PAGE work to date has focused on waste management, green fiscal policy for industry, and sustainable public procurement. PAGE progress on sectoral and thematic reform as well as areas of focus for 2021 are highlighted below.
In the context of the LCDC, PAGE has contributed to the development of a policy vision for the waste sector, completed in March 2020. A number of assumptions and sector development scenarios of the waste sector have been developed and verified within stakeholder consultations in November 2020.
Ongoing modelling work is supported by co-financing from GIZ and results will further inform the waste section of LCDC. Additionally, PAGE is supporting preparatory work for the development of a National Programme on Waste Management up to 2030 and an action plan for its implementation. This work was officially launched in August, and in December 2020 PAGE compiled and submitted a full concept of the programme for MEGNR consideration. In parallel, available experts have embarked on the development of the first chapters of the Waste Programme itself, with the final Programme is expected to be developed by early 2021. This supports SDG 12, targets 12.4 and 12.5 by improving waste management and reducing waste production.
MEGNR and PAGE have initiated a pilot project activity to support green SMEs, by directing a portion of emission payments to finance projects with a high potential to reduce emissions. The main objective of this project is to increase the efficiency of emissions payments, support SMEs by creating favourable conditions for “green” projects, and to provide financial assistance and incentives — promoting green business and contributing to green employment. The pilot programme launched in Pavlodar in 2020. In line with this, PAGE aims to contribute towards SDG 8, target 8.4 by endeavouring to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation and SDG 9, targets 9.4 and 9.B by upgrading infrastructure and supporting domestic technology development.
Public procurement wields enormous purchasing power, accounting for more than 25 percent of gross domestic procurements in Kazakhstan. Leveraging this purchasing power by buying more sustainable goods and services can drive markets in the direction of sustainability, reduce the negative impacts of organizations, and produce positive benefits for the environment and society.
PAGE is conducting analysis and consultations on the feasibility of introducing a Policy and Action plan for the insertion of sustainability criteria in Kazakhstan’s public procurement processes. This was launched with an introductory online workshop on Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) in December 2020, attended by heads and officials of central and local executive government bodies, representatives of the quasi-public sector, international organizations, business and public associations. The analysis is anticipated to be complete by March 2021. This work contributed to SDG 12, target 12.7, by supporting sustainable procurement of goods and services.
While the overall PAGE programme was still under development, first sectorally and thematically focused activities were already explored in 2019 and 2020 in a few select areas, including the green transition of the India Railways, sustainable manufacturing and green finance.
Indian Railways employ more than 1.27 million people and have a huge carbon footprint in terms of energy and material consumption, fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emission, waste generation and water consumption. PAGE in 2019 supported the formation of a high-level “Task Force on Environmental Sustainability” for the Indian Railways, one of the largest railway networks in the world. In 2020, PAGE, via UNEP, continued its work to support the National Academy of Indian Railways (NAIR) with capacity development (see Strengthening Capacity, below).
Building on the stocktaking study, in 2020, PAGE, led by UNIDO, commenced a deep dive study with a particular focus on India’s manufacturing sector. This study will include an appraisal of key macro drivers for economic growth and employment creation and map high impact opportunities, to initiate the transition towards inclusive green growth.
Supported by PAGE, a UNDP-led project was initiated in 2019 relating to the development of a methodology for sharing benefits/disbursing funds accrued through the access and benefits sharing (ABS) mechanism by the National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards. The project aims to enable the ABS mechanism to become more effective in achieving its objective of conservation and green economic development involving a range of stakeholders, including local communities.